Monday, August 24, 2020
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Treatment of Folk Illnesses Essay The world offers each individuals an opportunity to be wiped out because of a portion of the outside elements that can hurt somebody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing. There are perils for the lungs like contamination and for the stomach which are the microbes and microorganisms that are pervasive all over the place. Indeed, even with the body portions of a person, one would already be able to discover a few dangers that can cause cholera or looseness of the bowels in their countenances or hands where there is staphylococcal gathering if not multiplication their settlements. Obviously with respect to certain illnesses, there are numerous traditional techniques that the elderly folks individuals think would help fix these dangers to wellbeing. There are likewise numerous reports that help the researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ sees about the various ways our progenitors manage their afflictions previously. Utilizing the reference referenced underneath, we can see that there are as of now improvements in our ancestorsÃ¢â¬â¢ perspective that they are conceiving systems so as to fix their own diseases by the normally happening fixes that can be seen somewhere else at that point. State, garlic is utilized to treat hypertension and oregano is utilized as an expectorant which I believe is as yet successful until today. The idea of having a lot of prepared to pick and instant prescriptions gave the early individuals particularly in Mexico that whatever infection they may be getting in the climate or condition is reparable and can undoubtedly be ignored after some time. Anyway for this outlook, there may be a few troubles and weaknesses given that we as of now have innovative infections too. These conditions can be from the improvement and advancement of the offices that we are utilizing these days. The reasons for sickness in the here and now are from complex issues, for example, synthetic inebriation and suffocation because of the unpredictability obviously of the exercises we do ordinary. These ailments probably won't be relieved quickly by the arrangement of the local way our old colleagues treat their contentions or battles with respect to their wellbeing. As what is as of now referenced, the utilization of garlic as anti-infection is as yet valuable. Truth be told the wellbeing of utilizing it was positioned with three constructive signs, notwithstanding, for outrageous reasons, a bulb of garlic won't be sufficient to bring down the pulse of an individual. Thus, clinical treatment is as of now required so as to give the patient the correct prescription and stay away from the danger of executing him/her. For all we know, hypertension is additionally related with coronary episode and some deadly coronary illness. On the off chance that in the event that there are a few patients who got their infections utilizing the society style of treating sicknesses, it is as yet significant that the specialist will have a lot of clarifications that will cause the patient to see wholeheartedly that the old method of looking for fix isn't viable with their illnesses. There ought to be some prepared answers with the goal that the specialist will think that its simple to cause them to comprehend and value the advanced method of relieving. It will likewise be useful if the specialist will be cautious about conveying the message to the patient not irritating their customs on utilizing a few herbs to sedate them. The patient thus ought to be prepared to acknowledge the data a specialist may give him/her since he/she in any case counseled or decided to look for a doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Wellbeing is a significant angle in a humanÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is a wellspring of the main thrust of each man that will empower them to seek after every day with delight and happiness. Society style prescription is tantamount to the cutting edge medication insofar as individuals who use it see how it functions and how it is applied with each and every sickness comparing to one substance or case. Be that as it may, as what numerous specialists state, it is truly better to look for counsel from specialists who have just examined the ideas, what-aboutÃ¢â¬â¢s, how-aboutÃ¢â¬â¢s and where-aboutÃ¢â¬â¢s of various sicknesses. We may be hurt by the prattle since the people ideas are being moved from an age to another age that there is a high chance of falsehood and so forth. It really is ideal we concentrate on what our predecessors have given and created, and great all things considered, we can have specialists, researchers and medical caretakers that changed, created and improved our insight about our wellbeing empowering us to become more advantageous individuals. Reference Nancy Neff. People Medicine in Hispanics in the Southwestern United States. Recovered 6 February 2008 from http://www.rice.edu/ventures/HispanicHealth/Courses/mod7/mod7.html
Thursday, July 16, 2020
To Micromanage or Not to Micromanage © Shutterstock.com | PichiIn this article, I explore 1) an introduction to micromanagement, 2) signs of micromanagement, 3) micromanagers vs. hands on managers, 4) the need for micromanagement, 5) arguments for and against micromanagement, 6) how to micromanage successfully, 7) how to deal with micromanagement, and 8) a short conclusion.INTRODUCTION TO MICROMANAGEMENTAnyone who has worked in an organization has at some point in their career either been a micromanager or has been micromanaged. It is not a pleasant feeling to be constantly closely monitored and controlled by your boss.Micromanagement can be defined as the extreme management of personnel with too much attention to minor details. A micromanager will hover over the employee and look at tiny details and offer comments and criticism, rather than instructing the employee on how to do the job and providing them with a deadline to accomplish it. In most cases, micromanagement is not considered the best form of management as it can be demoralizing and deprecatory for an employee.Micromanagers find it hard to let go of control and have difficulty in delegating responsibility. They want to do everything themselves and more often than not, end up being frustrated, and frustrating their subordinates too, because things do not get done for lack of good management. But all about micromanagement is not bad; when handled properly and applied under certain circumstances, micromanagement can reap rich benefits for organizations.SIGNS OF MICROMANAGEMENTThere are several signs of micromanagement. In order to study the impact of micromanagement on an enterprise, it is important to spot these signs. Micromanagers cannot let an employee function independently. They need to be in constant control of the process, observing in minute detail and assessing, commenting and giving suggestions, even when not required. They find it hard to delegate responsibility and end up being over involved in tasks that they could easily have left to their subordinates.Micromanagers cannot mind their own business. They have to be involved with overseeing other peopleâs projects too. Most of the time, they get stuck in tiny unnecessary details and refuse to look at the whole picture. Very often, if and when they find a tiny mistake or problem, they will take back the work they had delegated and try to finish it themselves. Micromanagers do not take well to initiatives shown by their subordinates nor do they appreciate independent decision making without their consent. They demand reports at every stage of progress and have a need to be in the know, and no decision can be taken without their blessing. Most of the time, the comments and inputs provided by the micromanager are counterproductive and trivial.Another quality of micromanagers is that they put their noses in where it is not required. In other words, they involve themselves in other peopleâs work without discussing it with them first. They think they kno w all and do not appreciate or accept suggestions from peers, thus undermining the knowledge and experience of others. They focus on the wrong things, thus demotivating their team and killing initiative. They are rarely satisfied with the work others have produced. Most micromanagers are not well liked by their subordinates and colleagues; their team has little sense of loyalty or commitment toward their manager.MICROMANAGERS VS HANDS-ON MANAGERSA lot of micromanagers wish to describe themselves as Hands-on Managers. This is a misnomer as the two terms have completely different connotations and should not be confused.A hands-on manager will set a goal, make sure that the employee is clear about what needs to be done and the result that has to be delivered, and then, let the employee go ahead and complete the task independently. They do check on the progress but do not demand to be informed of every step or be involved in the process of completing the task.Micromanagers, on the other hand, will set out in detail as to how things are to be done and to what outcome. Then they will hover around and follow the progress in minutest detail, insisting on being informed about everything and that no decision can be made without a nod from them. They do not ever truly delegate, which eventually results in low morale and productivity.Other differences between the two are that a micromanager will not allow a subordinate to take complete charge of a whole task. They will give it piece by piece. The good managers delegate responsibility to a junior, expect them to deliver the result and do not interfere in the process.While good managers identify and observe the weaker employees more closely, they do not interfere in the work of competent employees. They adjust their role depending upon the experience and expertise of the employee. The micromanagers treat everyone alike. They take no consideration of experience or knowledge when interacting with employees.Micromanagers will pay equal attention to details for each and every task they are handed whether it is important or not. Hands-on managers adjust their priorities based on the importance of the job they are scrutinizing. Thus, you can see that there is a difference in the approach of micromanagers and hands-on managers when faced with similar situations. This fundamental difference is what separates them.There is a good video on the differences between micromanagers and effective managers. It clearly defines how the two differ.THE NEED FOR MICROMANAGEMENTDespite all the negative connotations regarding micromanagement, its not all bad. There are certain conditions in which it is actually good to micromanage. Some types of businesses have to be micromanaged in order for them to get the desired results and be profitable. There is a need for it when reviewing performances of employees and processes. Not everyone is very conscientious or responsible or even proactive; these types of people need to be micr omanaged to be productive.Micromanagement lays bare the real problems plaguing a team or a business and paves the way for improvement. Minute observations are good for spotting problem areas and dealing with them. They also help to discover inefficient and non-performing staff, who can then be pulled up or asked to leave.One of the conditions, when micromanagement is essential, is during the onboarding process when a new employee is being inducted. Another condition when it becomes necessary is when there is a problem employee who needs to be checked. If the employee is left free to continue the offensive behavior, it could spread to other employees, undermine the authority of the manager and disrupt the functioning of the organization. When under the microscope, a delinquent employee tends to be more careful of his/her performance.When a project or the company has a problem, then it is time to micromanage. Other conditions where micromanagement actually helps is when a company is s tarting out on a new project or when the companyâs line of business is in an area where the employees have to work under dangerous conditions or handle hazardous materials. Under such conditions, micromanagement is good as it avoids risks, identifies problems and looks for solutions to solve the problems.ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST MICROMANAGEMENTEven though micromanagement may be good under certain conditions, it is still not something that people enjoy. It has the potential of demoralizing people, creating lack of trust and a dysfunctional work environment. No concept is all good or all bad, its success or failure depends upon the way in which it has been implemented. Though most people think that micromanagement is counterproductive, we cannot dismiss it without looking at the advantages and disadvantages of the practice before passing a verdict.When It Is Good for BusinessMicromanagement, when done properly, can be highly productive and help a company, especially for a new ventu re looking to streamline its productivity and manage resources in a more efficient manner. Micromanagement is good for a business when:Hiring new people: In order to get the best candidate for the job, it is essential to have a very methodical process in place before calling a person for an This is essential, so that time and effort are not wasted on the wrong candidate. So, scrutinizing each candidate is good.Orienting and onboarding of a new employee: It is good during the onboarding process when a new employee is being inducted. It is essential to micromanage a newbie simply because they need to be shown the ropes and the manager needs to know the capabilities of the person who has been hired. A new employee needs orientation so that he/she can have a good base on which to build his/her career within the organization.Starting new processes or ventures: When beginning a new venture or a process, it is essential to micromanage it, in order to discover any loopholes, problem areas o r bottlenecks in the process and eliminate them.Facing financial or legal problems: When a project or a company is in trouble, then micromanagement is good. It becomes essential to look at all the details, however minute, to find the cause of the problem and plug the leak so that the problem can be solved. This is the time when all employees and their work come under scrutiny and micromanagement.Employees have a track record of being problematic: If there is an employee who is known to be problematic, it is important to keep a close eye on his/her performance and actions. This may improve performance, and if it doesnât, then perhaps it is time for you to let the employee go.Engaging in high-risk activities: People working in hazardous industries or involved in high-risk activities need to be micromanaged. This is done for their own safety. Any slip ups in such circumstances could mean life and death, and hence close attention needs to be paid.Changing strategy: If a business is ch anging strategy or making big changes within the organization, micromanagement is good. It helps everyone involved to understand the process and how the changes will impact their role and duties.Changing top management: When there is a change in top management, business owners need to micromanage so as to familiarize the new executive to the work environment. Even the most experienced person needs guidance to slip into their new role.There is a complaint about the service or product: Owners need to look into this matter and find out where the problem lies to eliminate it before too much damage is done.Profits are falling: If the profitability of a business is declining it is time to micromanage to avert disaster.When It Is Bad for BusinessExcess managing is detrimental to the growth and well-being of an organization. Micromanagement has the potential of too much scrutiny, and this can be counterproductive. It can become a problem when:It hampers growth and learning: Too much control is not good, for it kills the desire in employees to learn and grow. When an employee knows that he/she is being constantly watched and will be interrupted at every stage, they lose the desire for self-improvement and enhancement.It prevents evaluation of skills: It is difficult to assess the skills of employees who are being micromanaged, as it is unclear what they have done themselves and what they have been directed to do by the micromanager. Most micromanagers do not let their subordinates take ownership of their work.It affects employeesâ performance: Over scrutinizing is demoralizing and creates self-doubts in the employees, which eventually ends in affecting their performance. The employees know that they will not be allowed to work independently or given credit and hence do not put in any extra efforts or add anything more to the task than is asked.It kills motivation and innovation: Constant criticism and scrutiny also kill initiative. When the micromanager takes over th e task, and there is no scope for inputs from anyone else, it kills innovation and creativity and demotivates the team.The micromanager loses control: A micromanager will eventually lose control over the team. Since they use only control to manage their subordinates, soon it becomes ineffective as the employees get used to the bullying, or they leave and seek employment elsewhere.There is a loss of trust and mutual appreciation: Micromanagement breeds distrust and dislike. Such an environment, within an organization, is not conducive to growth and productivity. When the atmosphere at work becomes too oppressive, the productivity drops and good employees leave.It creates dependency: Since a micromanager does not allow initiative and inputs from other people in the team, the employees learn to leave all decision-making to the manager and become totally dependent on him/her.It results in a high attrition rate: One side effect of micromanagement is a high attrition rate, where good empl oyees leave the organization and join rivals or parallel ones. Most creative and hardworking people do not like being under the microscope all the time and prefer to move on.Business partners back out: Business partners, especially financial partners, are not happy when all the power remains in the hands of one individual. Employees are there to do the work assigned to them and if they are not free to do so then the organization will be dysfunctional and this will affect profitability. This will not please the financial partners at all.It results in increased workload and burnout: When someone is micromanaging they are essentially taking on work that has been assigned to someone else. So micromanagers end up doing double the work, which they could have easily avoided if they had not micromanaged. This causes the overburdening of one individual, in this case, the micromanager, and can lead to burnout. It also hampers the production process by causing bottlenecks and delays.Now that w e know the problems, it should be fairly easy to be able to avoid the pitfalls that give micromanagement such a bad reputation.HOW TO MICROMANAGE SUCCESSFULLYMicromanagement is more prevalent than one would imagine. A lot of very successful enterprises and entrepreneurs use it to good effect. Such industry leaders use the following techniques to successfully micromanage their team.Have in-depth knowledge of the business: Micromanagement is effective if you know your business or job inside and a person who is familiar with his job can easily spot the problems and guide his/her team to eliminate it.Hard work: Good micromanagement is about hard work and dedication. It paves the way for the manager to look into all the little details of the business.Interaction with employees and clients: Strong and friendly interaction is a must if micromanagement is to be a positive force for your business. Managers need to be able to give positive guidance without being critical and by respecting the ir employeeâs position, experience, and knowledge. They also need to know their clients and hence, should have a channel of customer feedback available to them.Use patience, be calm and respectful in any engagement with employees: Being over critical, irritable, impatient and insulting of peers or employees is detrimental to the good health of an organization. Micromanagers should not allow this to happen when dealing with people.Listen to your employees: Learn to listen to the employees. They are the ones who are on the job and know the problems they are facing. Do not dismiss their queries or concerns. Similarly, be ready to call out an employee who does not live up to the expectations and talk to him/her about their progress, goals and priorities.Carry out inspections regularly: Managers should carry out regular inspection of the facility and processes to be aware of what is going on in the organization and not completely rely on the reports of the managers.Set clear goals: Goa ls and their expected outcomes should be clearly defined to the team members and then responsibilities should be assigned to the team leaders. Explain that the goal and the expected outcome will be the benchmark against which all performances and progress will be evaluated.Good leaders have demonstrated that if done properly, micromanagement can be very productive for an organization irrespective of its size. The main points to keep in mind are that there should be autonomy within the organization, and the micromanagers should be careful of how they deal with the employees. The main difference between good management and bad management comes from the way employees are treated within an organization and whether their voices are heard or not.HOW TO DEAL WITH MICROMANAGEMENTIf you are a micromanager, then you need to break the habit before it is too late. If you are a victim of micromanagement, you do not have to suffer through it. In either case, you have to deal with the problem in a subtle, yet decisive way.If You Are a MicromanagerIf you are one of those managers who like to look into little details, then you need to stop doing it. Here are some tips to help you get rid of the habit:Change your attitude.Do not hang on to the trivial.Advise, donât dictate.Believe in winning.Interact with the employees, and hear them out.Encourage your employees to approach you with their problems.Do not hover around your employees; let them get on with their work.Hire the right person for the job and hold him/her accountable.Let your employees know what you expect of them.Stop nitpicking.The biggest change has to come from you. You need to take it easy and trust your team to do its job properly, treating your peers and subordinates as people who are just as capable as you.If You Are Being MicromanagedIf you are being micromanaged by your boss, it can be extremely unpleasant and stressful. You need to get out of the situation either by taking the bull by the horn or by moving on to another job elsewhere. You can help yourself by:Talking to your manager about changeTrying to understand your managerâs point of viewLooking at your attitude and performance to see where your shortcomings lieBuilding your bossâs confidence in you and your abilityVolunteering for tasksCommunicatingAnalyzing your behavior and attitudeDiscovering your bossâs concerns and trying to alleviate them.Providing regular updates, so your boss knows what you are doingNot letting the criticism get to youTrying to stay ahead of your boss with answers, reports, feedbacks, etc.Following the rulesStaying in a job where you are being micromanaged is not good for you, your self-worth or your confidence. If you have tried everything in the books and the micromanagement and nitpicking continue, you can go speak to someone higher up in the organization about your problems, or you can find another job and move on. Here is a short, helpful article on how to deal with micromanagers.CONCLUSIONWe can see that micromanagement is not all bad; it does have its benefits in certain circumstances and conditions. If it is done in a proper manner, it can be beneficial for an organization. Managers need to be aware of their employeesâ performance and attitude, but this should be done in a manner that is not hyper critical or deprecatory. They need to be able to deal with people in a respectful and polite manner, and ensure that the inputs that they are giving add to the process and do not unnecessarily bog it down with details. Employees, on the other hand, need to be proactive with their responsibilities, and if they feel they are being micromanaged, do something about it. Whether it is the micromanager or the micromanaged, both need to take stock of the situation. If the micromanagement is becoming restrictive and oppressive, try to remedy it, as sooner or later, it will start to affect the overall productivity of the organization.
Thursday, May 21, 2020
Good Day, Tiffany Thank you for your insight on health care insurance. I do agree that programs should center on health awareness and promotion, especially, for those in the lower socioeconomic status (SES). There is a growing need to consider how best to address lower SES population health at an affordable cost of services without the high demand in price for services (Getzen, 2013; Shi Singh, 2011). While, providing education through health awareness and promotion, cost- effectiveness strategies has been a challenge for many health services due to limited moral hazard has on health initiatives (Getzen, 2013; Laureate Education, 2012). The positioning of preventative for those in the lower SES requires unlimited moral hazard to increase public health initiatives. With limited moral hazard the economic power begins to compete with the high demands for higher quality of services at the cost of those who are able to afford (Laureate Education, 2012). Those who are able to afford often have health insurance that makes them become desensitized to how often they can use services putting competition in the market that raise the cost of healthcare (Laureate Education, 2012). Therefore, my recommendation to such resolution, if health insurance decides to keep increasing the price elasticity in the demand services more public health funding are freely needed in the lower SES communities. By having, a free flow of financing programs will help to support needed preventativeShow MoreRelatedPlan For Purchase Health Insurance1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages. If you were going to purchase health insurance today, which of your Ã¢â¬Å "Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans would you choose and why? Include the rationale for your choice and information about the deductible, premium, co-pay, and specialist information. When purchasing insurance it is extremely imperative that one assesses all of the benefits, specifications, and details offered in order to choose the best plan in regards to deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance-just to name a few. Among the Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans that I choseRead MorePlan For Purchase Health Insurance1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages. If you were going to purchase health insurance today, which of your Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans would you choose and why? Include the rationale for your choice and information about the deductible, premium, co-pay, and specialist information. When purchasing insurance it is extremely imperative that one assesses all of the benefits, specifications, and details offered in order to choose the best plan in regards to deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance-just to name a few. 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The recent election of our president has and will force us to see some very big changes in the next few months. ObamaCare also known as the Affordable Care Act was set in place by President Obama in order to reduce health care costs and give affordable health insurance to Americans. IRead MoreAnalysis Of The Moviesicko By Michael Moore1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhere one did not have to worry about deductibles, high monthly insurance rates, and being denied health care. Is this possible? Can the United States (U.S.) have this or is such a nation fiction? Michael Moore, known documentary filmmaker, set out on a mission. This mission was featured in his documentary, Sicko. The mission consisted of multiple rhetorical strategies to disclose the positive and negative effects of socialized health care. 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These services must be provided with no cost-sharing, such as out-of-pocket costs like deductibles, co-payments, and co-insurance provider (The National WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Center, 2017). The article, Ã¢â¬Å"Did Contraceptive Use Patterns Change After the Affordable Care Act?Ã¢â¬ presents interesting insight on the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What is the role of hr in global crisis to retain the talented employees ? http://www.edalys.fr/documents/Stakeholders%20theory.pdf http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=stakeholder-theory Article - 1 Employees are not the most important asset of the company but the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ employees are. Human Resource Management (HRM) plays a strategic role in the survival of an organization. In this time of global financial crisis, Human Resource (HR) managers must not only innovate but must also act as change agents, strategists, mentors, counselors and motivators. They must adopt a people-centered model of management instead of the go-get-them approach. The latter approach will not only push down the morale of your employees but it will also shove yourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But all of these discussions were overshadowed with a deeper discussion on HRÃ¢â¬â¢strue role in meeting business needs today. 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string(204) " Thirdly assessment declares ones achievement for various stakeholders like students, parents, the institution, prospective employers, the government sectors, accreditation body, and professional bodies\." Table of Content NoTitlePage No 1Introduction 2Role of assessment in curriculum design , learning teaching 3Assessment for learning v Assessment of Learning 4. Issues and concerns ? Abstract Assessment is an integral part of curriculum practice. The prime consideration of educational institutions are the outcomes of learning, the enhanced abilities students can demonstrate because of their increase in knowledge , able to adapt and understand to changes because of their university experiences. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Assesment in Higher Education or any similar topic only for you Order Now Our concern is how learning takes effect and how teaching and assessment affect the quality of learning in order for students to acquire the knowledge and competencies that is required for the work place. To acquire these industry relevant skills lecturers suggest assessment be integral to teaching and how learning activities are structured. Hence , this report reviews the role of assessment in curriculum design change, itÃ¢â¬â¢s importance of continuous assessment for enhancing learning, common assessment practices and it issues and concerns. 1. Introduction: In this report, literature researched was with regards to the role of assessment in curriculum design change. Thus this report tries to answer the following questions in order to highlight the role of assessment in curriculum design, implementation and enhancement of learning. 1. What is curriculum and the role of assessment in curriculum development and enhancement? 2. What is Assessment of learning v Assessment for Learni ng and the practices in higher education 3. Issues and concerns on assessment in teaching and learning at institutions of higher learning? 2. Assessment as a part of curriculum practice Curriculum is a Latin word and it refers to a Ã¢â¬ËcourseÃ¢â¬â¢ or a Ã¢â¬ËtrackÃ¢â¬â¢ to be followed. In education, the focus is learning, then the most appropriate interpretation for the word curriculum is viewed as a course or Ã¢â¬Ëplan for learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (ef. Taba , 1962). (Howell and Evans, 1995) defines curriculum as the Ã¢â¬ËwhatÃ¢â¬â¢ of teaching. I would define curriculum as a course of study. Then the process of curriculum development can be seen in short where one develops a product, which involves an ongoing improvement. Curriculum development is a long cyclic process of research, designing, implementing and evaluating learning outcomes based on the interest, needs and capabilities of learners, and the many stakeholders, which directs enhancement. The literature review report is in relation to the role of assessment in curriculum development and enhancement of Teaching and Learning. What is Assessment? Assessment is any process that evaluates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, understanding and skills. Van den Akker (2003) defines assessment as an integral component of curriculum practice. Assessment gives feedback on curriculum delivery which indicates about student learning, the curriculum and the academic policies. Thus educators strongly believe that assessment and curriculum be integrated in the curriculum cycle. For example, Students achievement of knowledge and skills are determined by assessment. Lecturers manage teaching and assessment of student competence according to the level of the course, giving grades, guiding and counselling and so on. These can only be possible if there are effective assessment procedures in the curriculum administration and practice. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1995 the Assessment Forum of the American Association of Higher Education led by Thomas A. Angelo went through an interactive process to develop a definition of assessment. The end-result of that definition process is as follows:Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Assessment is an ongoing process aimed at understanding and improving student learning. It involves making our expectations explicit and public; setting appropriate criteria and high standards for learning quality; systematically gathering, analyzing, and interpreting evidence to determine how well performance matches those expectations and standards; and using the resulting information to document, explain, and improve performance. When it is embedded effectively within larger institutional systems, assessment can help us focus our collective attention, examine our assumptions, and create a shared academic culture dedicated to assuring and improving the quality of higher education (Thomas A. Angelo, AAHE Bulletin, November 1995, p. 7)Ã¢â¬ In order to measure a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning outcome, progression and competence attained, various types of information need to be gathered to determine the degree of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s attainment in the learning outcomes for the curriculum. Various methods of formal and informal observation of students during their learning, examinations and quizzes, performance on assignments, projects and presentations are used to gather this information. Lecturers advise that there should be a plan for assessment at programme, course and lesson level, which is often overlooked. As Pratt (1998) stated, to make sure student achievements and grades reflect the learning outcomes established, assessments must be carefully planned, conducted, subject to continuous analysis, evaluation and enhancement. Learning outcomes (knowledge and competence of students), assessment, and teaching are all parts of an integrated whole. Assessment is believed to be essential to the teaching process in delivery and experience of the curriculum. But some students think of assessment as a form of control for lecturers. As (Pratt, 1998; Haladyna Downing, 2004) stated when students progress from one semester to another they become displeased and suspicious about the assessment practices, and regarding them to be unfair and a means to demonstrate favouritism and punishment. Ã¢â¬ In institutions of higher learning, educators have the choice to choose the assessment types and practices. Since assessment results affect academic competence, educators are required to create a conducive learning environment and make assessment integral to educational processes. In an encouraging learning environment a healthy dialogue takes place, trying out ideas, reflection, discussion, ask questions and enjoy the process of learning. (Pratt, 1998) Assessment is an important component and has several purposes. It directs the teaching process. Monitoring, discussion and observations in the classroom is also an important kind of assessment. This allows the instructor to gauge how well the lesson is going and whether learning is taking place with healthy discussion, participation and answering sessions (Nittko, 2004). Assessment helps in identifying learning difficulties, studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ strength and weakness. This then allows the instructor to set questions that can help build on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses both formally and informally. Secondly assessment provides feedback on the learning. Information from assessment helps in programme evaluation (Pratt, 1998). Thirdly assessment declares ones achievement for various stakeholders like students, parents, the institution, prospective employers, the government sectors, accreditation body, and professional bodies. You read "The Role of Assesment in Higher Education" in category "Essay examples" Assessment in the form of quizzes, tests, class projects, assignments and informal observations declare how well a student has achieved the learning outcomes and grade in his/her course, module or unit (Nittko, 2004). Besides, assessment points students to pedagogical priorities and directs students approach to experience course curriculum. Classroom questions test and examinations would indicate to students, important topics of the curriculum. Example, if questions are based on trivial information, then students focus would be at factual recall and knowledge. If tests require substantive knowledge and deep understanding then students change their perspective to curriculum. Assessment motivations, improves self image and a sense of self power of students. When assessment is well designed, it produces success in learning; it motivates and stimulates student confidence and wanting to learn. Meherus and Lehman (1991) describes assessment as an important tool as it increases motivation towards their course, which establishes healthy study habits, which also provides feedback to lecturers to determine studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths and weaknesses. Assessment gives lecturers an opinion on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Assessment results enable the lecturer to provide further guidance about their learning. Therefore, lecturers in institutes of higher learning should be aware of the significant role of assessment in curriculum and thus have the skills and tools to effectively setup curriculum at programme level. 3, Assessment for Learning v Assessment to Learning What is Assessment for Learning? It could be defined as: Ã¢â¬ ¢a form of positive formal feedback [ e. g. ecturers comment; self-assessment systems] Ã¢â¬ ¢provides informal feedback [ e. g. dialogue teaching; peer interaction] Ã¢â¬ ¢it gives an opportunity to the student to try and apply knowledge, skills and their understanding Ã¢â¬ ¢ assessment tasks that are relevant Ã¢â¬ ¢it guides students to develop independence and Ã¢â¬ ¢it has an appropriate balance between summative and formative assessment. There should be a balance between formative and summative assessment s. Continuous assessment or assessment for learning is practiced less compared to summative assessment. As stated by Careless (2004), lecturers in institutions of higher learning tend to choose more for theoretical knowledge than for practical and procedural knowledge in assessing students. Such assessment focuses on theory and concepts really do not help students for the real world. This limits the students of skills that employers look for. Brown Glaser (1999) states improving on assessment practice improves student learning. Further to that, standards of learning rose through ongoing assessment practice. It is noted that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and attitude towards learning changes, when assessment methods change. Students become more responsible and take ownership of their learning. But there are challenging problems with assessment for learning. Problems identified by Black and William (2004) with regards to assessment for learning in institutions of higher learning as: Ã¢â¬ ¢Assessment methods used by lecturers are not effective to promote good learning Ã¢â¬ ¢Grading practices gives rise to competition rather than self improvement and Ã¢â¬ ¢Feedback on assessment if practiced, often has a negative impact on less performing students which makes them believe that they lack ability and thus are not able to learn. Diamond (1998) further goes to describe the basic problem with assessment practice in institutions of higher learning, as a mismatch between learning outcomes and the assessment methods and criteria used by lecturers to assess and grade their students. Frequently, learning outcomes are expected to demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving skills, but the assessment type used would most frequently focus on recalling and recognition of content learned. Assessment used for the purpose of promoting student learning is described as assessment for learning. Assessment used for accountability purpose, grading or certification is assessment of learning. Assessments that promote enhancement to learning is one where there is a continuous process of back and forth between the student and the lecturer which provides feedback on progression until the outcome is well met. This sort of assessment is called Ã¢â¬Ëassessment for learningÃ¢â¬â¢ when assessment evidence is used to adjust teaching to meet learners needs and difficulties (Black William 1998). Assessment is part and parcel of learning. Assessment in fact, shapes learning. Much has been discussed and written that to enhance student learning, assessment has to be integrated with teaching (Wright, et. al, 1997). Gibbs and Simpson (2005) regards assessment for learning as a system which directs and controls student learning based on the power of summative assessment and grades in addition to providing feedback. Assessment and teaching has to be blended to contribute to the goal of improving learning. Good instructors do pay careful attention to assessment and teaching, and to have learning activities well structured. Despite this suggestion, lecturers in higher education do not practice the real importance of assessment. As Black William (1998) says this could also be because lecturers are not well trained in this area. In most institutions of higher learning assessment is used to test knowledge and does not test the critical and problem solving skills. Example, multiple choice questions promote de-contextualised, rot learning and this narrows the curriculum to basic skills with low cognitive demands. In contrast to this, the industries demand for transferable skills like communication, information retrieval, critical thinking, problem solving. And because of this, institutions have fast inclined to formative, holistic form of assessment which is described as Ã¢â¬ËauthenticÃ¢â¬â¢ assessments. However, as Black William (1998) argues that traditional form of assessment cannot be easily replaced because they are embedded in complex histories, culture and power relations of school societies. Shepard (2001) also suggested that conventional assessment method based on theories and psychometric principles conflicts with implications of assessment for learning which is based on cognitive and constructive learning standards. James (2003) findings indicate a number of major effects with assessment methods and students self-perception and confidence level. For many students, they were disappointed with feedback, on how to improve their level of competence, for others was the concern on how to achieve higher marks. Term exams were rarely discussed or available so that students could use them to improve their knowledge and skills. Assessment plays a significant role in implementing curriculum. There should be significant guiding principles for this to happen. James (2003) had put forth the following guiding principles for assessment for learning: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ensure ssessment methods used promote and reward desired learning activities and outcomes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Students have got clear instructions on assessment requirements. Ã¢â¬ ¢Provide effective and timely feedback with comments on a continuous basis. The first principle is based on BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s taxonomy, which is to recall and recognition, comprehension and appli cation, critical thinking and problem solving. In his second principle (James: 65) states the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Assessment procedures in higher education are likely to become increasingly open to security to candidates, and to candidates appeals. The need for commonly agreed marking procedures and techniques is obvious, if collective responsibility for candidates is maintained, full openness between colleagues and demonstrable internal consistency of courses and related assessment procedures are vital importanceÃ¢â¬ There can be a problem in generalised good assessment practices for learning. Different subject discipline like Engineering versus psychology would have different pedagogic assumptions. So if general principles cover all subjects, the way in which they manifest may differ for different subjects (Black William, 2004). Boud (1990) suggests alternate developments in student assessments in higher education, which is careful monitoring of assessment to see how relevant they are to the students. He also challenges that current assessment methods do not really prepare students to the real world. Meherns Lehman, 1991 Nitko 2004, state quality teaching and assessment are intertwined. They greatly improve studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Teaching will be effective when teaching activities, learning outcomes and assessment methods are well aligned. As Nitko (2004) suggests 4 key questions lecturers got to ask themselves when preparing for teaching and to implement continuous assessment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Is my lesson going well? Is there progression in student leaning? To align to these questions suggested assessment methods could be classroom observation during class activities, response to questions and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interactions. Ã¢â¬ ¢How can I improve to make the learning activity better? Diagnosis types of errors made by students, identify students who are not participating and also at the assessment methods used. Ã¢â¬ ¢What feedback to be given about the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning? Assessment methods used are informal observation and encouragement, how well they have achieved the learning outcome, assignments, quiz and consultations. Ã¢â¬ ¢Finally are the students ready to progress to the next level? Informal observation, checking and questioning students about their understanding of homework, test, quiz and grades obtained to decide on their progress to their next learning or do they require remedial instructions. Lecturers should use a variety of assessment methods to help student achieve the learning outcomes as stipulated in the course curriculum. In most cases lecturers generally use pen-and-paper achievement tests. Meherns Lehman (1991) argue that classroom evaluation should not be restricted to pen-and-paper but other forms like observation techniques, checklists etc. Continuous assessment is practical for everyday classroom use. Test, presentations, projects, journal, collaborative works are some that could be used to assess students and lecturers their stand in relation to knowledge and skills. Smith (2003) and Shepard (2001) stated that assessment trends are moving away from traditional methods to a variety of new approaches. For instance, Observation is greatly used by experienced teachers to identify studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progression or having difficulties. Portfolio or records of work are also another form of assessment practice. Portfolio is a kind of file where studentÃ¢â¬â¢s written works are kept. Portfolios provide cumulative evidence of learning over time in much detail and substance than a mere list of scores. Self and peer assessment are also essential to learning. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ self-reflection and their understanding are used to inform for further teaching and areas the lecturer needs to spend more time and effort. Brookhart (2001), Shepard (2001), and Stiggins (1999, 2001) maintained that students should be actively involved in self-evaluation as a form of assessment. Their argument was that students need to monitor their own progress by applying ongoing feedback that is helpful in showing them how to meet the ultimate learning outcome. However, self-assessment is only possible when lecturers help students develop assessment skills, because it is difficult for students to think of their work in terms of learning outcomes (Black William, 2004). Peer-assessment is also another important form of assessment. The learning task is placed in the hands of the students. While the lecturer is able to observe and reflect on what is happening and frame helpful interventions. The lecturer finds this form very helpful indeed. Misconceptions are highlighted and these are discussed when they go over the assessment. These forms of assessment require student active learning. As one student stated Ã¢â¬Ëafter a student marking my assignment, I can now acknowledge my mistakes easier. I hope that it is not just me who learned from the work but the student who marked it alsoÃ¢â¬â¢ (Black William, 2004:16). Feedback and comments to students about their learning is a good practice in assessment. Feedback should state ways for improvement. Grades or marks are not providing enough feedback to help improve student learning (Nitko, 2004). Feedback is effective when it provokes thinking in students. With regards to this, Back William (2004) stated marks are likely to set comparison; while only feedback and comments help them to improve. Research studies on feedback showed 60% improvement on performance. Feedback with no comments was more of judgement or grade with no indication for improvement (Black William, 2004) Hence it is important for the enhancement of student learning that lecturers emphasise on feedback and comment on assessed work of students in the learning process. . Issues and Concerns Staff One of the main concerns in assessment will be the lecturers. Especially here in Malaysia in the private sector , many lecturers lack the knowledge in assessment practices. Universities and college do not believe in investing in training. Another factor is lecturers have heavy teaching work load and large class sizes tha t formal assessment would be replace by mere test, assignment and examinations due to time constrains. Cost Costs to the faculty and institution are an important factor. Some form of assessment processes can be time consuming, involving student supervision in observation of activities. Time, of course, is money. Also investing in additional resources like technology increases cost. This does not enable the lecturers to use innovative methods of assessment. Standards To increase pass rates standards are compromised. Assessment requirements have placed more weightage on coursework, so student achievement has appeared to improve the assumption coursework is easier then exams. In some cases institutions do not have a quality system in place. Validity and reliability of assessment could be questionable. Conclusion Assessment is a vital component of curriculum practice that has important contribution for effective practice and operations of curriculum. LecturersÃ¢â¬â¢ acknowledgement for continuous assessment practice has significance for students learning of knowledge and skill. Lecturers should set assessment tasks that are practically challenging, provide feedback as they assess and get students engaged in the assessment process. Finally lecturers should change their views and practices of assessment and be committed to prepare competent graduates with the knowledge and skill in their specific field of study for the market place. References Akker, Van Den. (2003). Curriculum landscapes and Trends (pp1-10). Curriculum Perspectives:An Introduction. Black,P and William. (1998). Assessment and Classroom learning. Assessment in Education 5(1) Black,P. ,and William,D. (2004). Inside the Black Box: Phi-Delta kappan, 86(1):9-21 Diamond, R. M. (1998). Designing and Assessing Courses and Curricula: A practical Guide. Sanfrancisco: Jossey-Bass Inc Boud, D. (1990). Assessment and the Promotion of Academic Values. Studies in Higher Education 15(5): 101-111 Gibbs, G. Simpson, C. 2004-5) Conditions under which assessment supports studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1 (1), 3-31. Brookhart,S. M. (2001). Successful studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ formative and summative use of assessment information. Assessment in education 8, 153-169 Brown S. And Glaser A. (1999). Assessment Matters in higher Education: choosing and Using Diverse approaches. Great Britain: St. Edmunds bury press Ltd, SRHE and Open University press Careless,D. (2004). Converting assessment into learning. Theoretical and pratical perspectives. Paper Presented at Chinese University of Hong Kong. Unpublished. Haladyna and Downing. (2004). Constructive irrelevant in high stakes testing. Educational measurement:Issue and practice 23(1), 17-27 James,D. (2003). Making the graduate. Perspectives on student experience of assessment in higher education. In Ann filer (2003). Assessment: Social practice and social product. London: Rutledge Meherens, W. A. , and Lehmann, J. I. (1991). Measurement and Evaluation in Education Psychology (4th ed). Wadsworth: Thomson learning Nitko, A. J. (2004). Educational Assessment of Students (4th ed). Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall Pratt,D. 1998). Curriculum planning: A handbook for professionals. London: Harcourt Brace College Publishers Smith, K. J. (2003). Reconsidering reliability in classroom assessment and grading. Educational measurement: Issue and practice 22(4), 26-3. Stiggins,R. J. (1992). Relevant classroom assessment training for teachers. Educational measurement: Issue and practice 1091), 7-12 Wright, et. al (1997). Teacher and classroom c ontext effects on student achievement; Implication for teacher evaluation; Journal of personnel Evaluation in Education, 11,57-67. How to cite The Role of Assesment in Higher Education, Essay examples
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I am a newcomer to the iPhone world. Certainly, it is preferable to previously incessant struggles with a dinosaur Nokia; and considering all the options for personalization, my iPhone is able to reveal a lot about me. About 85% of my Notes, for instance, are reminders of details I found notable about certain events or placesÃ¢â¬âlike Ã¢â¬Å"Remember: Jackson actually sided with Webster!Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Why doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Banana Republic have a more politically correct name?Ã¢â¬ The most frequently visited page on my Internet history is www.realclearpolitics.com, and a photograph of Robert McNamara with President Kennedy currently stands as my beloved lock-screen wallpaper. I also have a playlist just for washing dishes, chock-full of pieces like Thais from Meditation by Jules Massenet, Hero by Regina Spektor, and, of course, VivaldiÃ¢â¬â¢s Winter. A browse through my camera roll will undoubtedly uncover an absurd amount of world map screenshots. How else would I know wheth er or not South Sudan classified as a landlocked country before the next Model United Nations conference? Embracing the mind-set of a very atypical teenage girl, I maintain an online subscription to Stratfor global intelligence articles. We will write a custom essay sample on Nerdy iPhone or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The last, and most telling, nerdy facet on my phone is my New York Times app; I review the ensuing mobile news updates almost religiously. Yet, the best part of this entire arrangement is that whenever I misplace my phone, anyone who knows me in the slightest is always able to return it.