Thursday, May 21, 2020
Good Day, Tiffany Thank you for your insight on health care insurance. I do agree that programs should center on health awareness and promotion, especially, for those in the lower socioeconomic status (SES). There is a growing need to consider how best to address lower SES population health at an affordable cost of services without the high demand in price for services (Getzen, 2013; Shi Singh, 2011). While, providing education through health awareness and promotion, cost- effectiveness strategies has been a challenge for many health services due to limited moral hazard has on health initiatives (Getzen, 2013; Laureate Education, 2012). The positioning of preventative for those in the lower SES requires unlimited moral hazard to increase public health initiatives. With limited moral hazard the economic power begins to compete with the high demands for higher quality of services at the cost of those who are able to afford (Laureate Education, 2012). Those who are able to afford often have health insurance that makes them become desensitized to how often they can use services putting competition in the market that raise the cost of healthcare (Laureate Education, 2012). Therefore, my recommendation to such resolution, if health insurance decides to keep increasing the price elasticity in the demand services more public health funding are freely needed in the lower SES communities. By having, a free flow of financing programs will help to support needed preventativeShow MoreRelatedPlan For Purchase Health Insurance1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages. If you were going to purchase health insurance today, which of your Ã¢â¬Å "Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans would you choose and why? Include the rationale for your choice and information about the deductible, premium, co-pay, and specialist information. When purchasing insurance it is extremely imperative that one assesses all of the benefits, specifications, and details offered in order to choose the best plan in regards to deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance-just to name a few. Among the Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans that I choseRead MorePlan For Purchase Health Insurance1302 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages. If you were going to purchase health insurance today, which of your Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans would you choose and why? Include the rationale for your choice and information about the deductible, premium, co-pay, and specialist information. When purchasing insurance it is extremely imperative that one assesses all of the benefits, specifications, and details offered in order to choose the best plan in regards to deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance-just to name a few. Among the Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans that I choseRead MorePersonal Values And Beliefs And Values872 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesvalues and beliefs My personal beliefs and values are on par with the present health care policy in the United States (U.S.). I value and believe in compassion, empathy and respect. People have the right to access basic medical care when they are sick. So, there should be universal healthcare for the people at a cost that is affordable to them. The health care charge must be on the basis of income with a cap. The people who are under the poverty line should receive health care at free of cost. AsRead MoreSicko - Analysis981 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesa documentary about the American Health Care system as seen through the eyes of the filmmaker Michael Moore. It presents the health care system in America as being fragmented and inefficient by using anecdotes to illustrate the plight of the 46 million Americans without health insurance and also to address the wider concerns about the kind of care that the insured get. The film also compares the non-universal and for-profit U.S. system with publicly funded hea lth systems of Canada, the United KingdomRead MoreImportance Of Time Management And Working Against Deadline763 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAlthough I have not been able to participate as much in class, due to the things going on in my personal life, I have still been able to grasp and understand the information within this course. Majority of what I have learned has been a related to government regulation relating to medical records. Coding regulation and the importance of being detailed with accuracy as it relates to billing. The importance of time management and working against deadline specially in regards to assignments. GovernmentalRead MorePlan For Purchase Health Insurance1438 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesa. If you were going to purchase health insurance today, which of your Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans would you choose and why? Include the rationale for your choice and information about the deductible, premium, co-pay, and specialist information. When purchasing insurance it is extremely imperative that one assesses all of the benefits, specifications, and details offered in order to choose the best plan in regards to deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance-just to name a few. Among the Ã¢â¬Å"Top TwoÃ¢â¬ plans that I choseRead MoreEssay on ObamaCare and How It Greatly Affects Our Health Care System1644 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGreatly Effects Our Health Care System Final Research Paper: ObamaCare and How It Greatly Effects Our Health Care System As the years go on, everything around us is constantly changing and becoming more advanced. The recent election of our president has and will force us to see some very big changes in the next few months. ObamaCare also known as the Affordable Care Act was set in place by President Obama in order to reduce health care costs and give affordable health insurance to Americans. IRead MoreAnalysis Of The Moviesicko By Michael Moore1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhere one did not have to worry about deductibles, high monthly insurance rates, and being denied health care. Is this possible? Can the United States (U.S.) have this or is such a nation fiction? Michael Moore, known documentary filmmaker, set out on a mission. This mission was featured in his documentary, Sicko. The mission consisted of multiple rhetorical strategies to disclose the positive and negative effects of socialized health care. The great thing about this topic is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s applicable toRead MorePolitical Cartoon: Obamacare or Republicare1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageson the medicine that I need?Ã¢â¬ With the Affordable Care Act (aka ObamaCare), you would not have to worry about that. ObamaCare is an affordable health care plan to which all American citizens can get medically taken care of without spending a fortune, regardless of what is wrong with them. Obama-care is necessary to the American public. Reasons being for ObamaCare being necessary are that middle and lower class citizens cannot afford health insurance, certain plans do not offer certain medical proceduresRead MoreThe Influence Of The Affordable Care Act1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAffordable Care ActÃ¢â¬â¢s (ACA) birth control benefit, all health plans must cover contraceptive methods and counseling for all women, as prescribed by a healthcare provider (The National WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Center, 2017). These services must be provided with no cost-sharing, such as out-of-pocket costs like deductibles, co-payments, and co-insurance provider (The National WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Law Center, 2017). The article, Ã¢â¬Å"Did Contraceptive Use Patterns Change After the Affordable Care Act?Ã¢â¬ presents interesting insight on the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
What is the role of hr in global crisis to retain the talented employees ? http://www.edalys.fr/documents/Stakeholders%20theory.pdf http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=stakeholder-theory Article - 1 Employees are not the most important asset of the company but the Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ employees are. Human Resource Management (HRM) plays a strategic role in the survival of an organization. In this time of global financial crisis, Human Resource (HR) managers must not only innovate but must also act as change agents, strategists, mentors, counselors and motivators. They must adopt a people-centered model of management instead of the go-get-them approach. The latter approach will not only push down the morale of your employees but it will also shove yourÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦But all of these discussions were overshadowed with a deeper discussion on HRÃ¢â¬â¢strue role in meeting business needs today. HR and Talent leaders seem to be feeling that they are facing a proverbial cross-road in how the market is defining their role in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s challenging business environment. This supposed cross-road could take HR in two different directions Ã¢â¬â will HR continue to be a critical support function, with a focus on keeping day to day HR needs met and a Ã¢â¬Å"call-us when you need usÃ¢â¬ approach to talent planning, recruiting, and development. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily a bad role: an HR function running in this manner with effective and efficient processes around a clearly defined box of available services can have a major impact on an organization. They operate as an essential support function, able to provide the appropriate data to answer business questions when needed. On the other hand, is HR shifting into a role that is more anticipatory and future focused, requiring sophisticated workforce planning and forecasting capabilities, ownership of social connection and communication networks, and an ability to predict future talent opportunities. A function that informs the business direction. Two of the conferences I attended, the US HROA summit, (which is a great event for anyone considering HR outsourcing in the future), as well as the Saba event, provided me with an opportunity to hear theShow MoreRelatedHealthcare Risk Management ( Hrm )1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Healthcare risk management ( HRM) began in The late 1970s, when hospitals are facing a malpractice crisis (Kavaler Alexander, 2014). According to Kavaler and Alexander (2014), it is estimated more than 140,000 Americans die from medical errors and the cost ranges between $17 billion and $29 billion each year in the United States (Kavaler Alexander, 2014). In this essay, the student will explain a healthcare risk management program, evaluate the program for compliance with the American SocietyRead MoreHealthcare Risk Management ( Hrm )1106 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Healthcare risk management ( HRM) began in the late 1970s when hospitals are facing a malpractice crisis (Kavaler Alexander, 2014). According to Kavaler and Alexander (2014), it is estimated more than 140,000 Americans die from medical errors and the cost ranges between $17 billion and $29 billion each year in the United States (Kavaler Alexander, 2014). In this essay, the student will explain a healthcare risk management program, evaluate the program for compliance with the American SocietyRead MoreNokia Hrm Practices952 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesQuestion 1: Nokia applies specific HRM practices that focus on attracting and retaining good employees. Discuss the significance of this strategic approach to talent management that is adopted by Nokia making them a leader in the mobile phone and telecommunications industry. 1.0 Introduction Global competitiveness seems to be the biggest challenge that most businesses and organisations are facing in the field of management nowadays. Emphasis today is more on strategic human resource managementRead MoreEssay on Human Resource Management in Business3172 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesBUSINESS Human Resource Management in Business Sylvan R. Wilcox Warner Southern College Abstract Human Resource Management (HRM) is no longer a personnel office that is simply a record-keeping and maintenance function. Huselid (1995) points out that there is a positive correlation that has developed between HRM as a strategic ally and company performance. HRM research has grown from an atheoretical origin to view organizational activities from an interdisciplinary perspective (Jennings, 1994)Read MoreEssay on Human Resource Management in Business3064 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesHuman Resource Management in Business Abstract Human Resource Management (HRM) is no longer a personnel office that is simply a record-keeping and maintenance function. Huselid (1995) points out that there is a positive correlation that has developed between HRM as a strategic ally and company performance. HRM research has grown from an atheoretical origin to view organizational activities from an interdisciplinary perspective (Jennings, 1994) that is concerned with a movement toward methodologicalRead MoreSupply Chain Risk Management Profile of the Hyundai Motor Company2738 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesSocial/ demographic risks Environmental/ eco-disruption risks, and last Political/ regulatory regime risks Within each of these categories, specific risks are present, and these impact Hyundai at various degrees. In terms of the business cycle, the risks facing the supply chain of Hyundai include the current economic crisis or the reduction of crediting possibilities. In terms of the social risks, these include changing consumer demands and expectations. The table below reveals the risks associatedRead MoreCompare the Human Resource Strategies of Colgate in U.S. and MarksSpencer (MS)2020 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesÃ ReferencesÃ --------------------------------------------------------------- P.14 2/14 1. Introduction TheÃ comparisonÃ ofÃ humanÃ resourceÃ practicesÃ ofÃ Colgate-PalmoliveÃ CompanyÃ in U.S.Ã andÃ MarksÃ andÃ SpencerÃ (Mamp;S)Ã inÃ HongÃ KongÃ theÃ effectivenessÃ ofÃ their HRMÃ strategies. Ã¢â¬ËHumanÃ ResourceÃ ManagementÃ (HRM)Ã asÃ aÃ distinctiveÃ approachÃ toÃ employment managementÃ whoÃ seeksÃ toÃ achieveÃ competitiveÃ advantageÃ throughÃ theÃ strategic deploymentÃ ofÃ aÃ highlyÃ committedÃ andÃ capableÃ workforce,Ã usingÃ anÃ arrayÃ of cultural,Ã structuralÃ andÃ personnelÃ techniquesRead MoreEvolution of Human Resource Management7638 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pagescorporations is evolving in the face of rapid business growth and integration into the global economy and we describe how the articles in this Special Issue contribute to new knowledge and insights regarding key issues, challenges, and evolution in the field of HRM in Asia. Driven by the combined forces of rapid gross domestic product growth in many Asian economies and their further integration into the global business arena, firms in Asia are in constant flux, no matter whether they are developedRead MoreHrm Best Practices and Transfers to the Asia-Pacific Region8056 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagesHRM Best Practices and Transfers to the Asia-Pacific Region Table 21.1 Selective Research on Best HRM Practices by Author 4 more images Approaching the second decade of the 21st century provides a fresh opportunity to think about kinds of possible management. In this regard, the area of human resource management (HRM) has become even more important to business, policymaking, and nations, including in the economically dynamic Asia-Pacific region. Most of the Asian economies had rapid growthRead MoreRelationship Between The Organization Success And Hrm Functions And Activities1684 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAssignment Name : Job Documentation Submitted By : Abhijit Kumar Dubey Student Id : 160006685 Content : Part (a).1. Relationship between the Organisation success and HRM functions and activities. Part (a).2. Relationship with internal external factors Part (b).1. Ã¢â¬Å"Job descriptionÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Person SpecificationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Job ProfileÃ¢â¬ Part (b).2. Support your analysis Part (a.) 1) Company name: Apparel Solution Limited NZ, location East Tamaki Auckland Interviewee: Manager Description of company:
string(204) " Thirdly assessment declares ones achievement for various stakeholders like students, parents, the institution, prospective employers, the government sectors, accreditation body, and professional bodies\." Table of Content NoTitlePage No 1Introduction 2Role of assessment in curriculum design , learning teaching 3Assessment for learning v Assessment of Learning 4. Issues and concerns ? Abstract Assessment is an integral part of curriculum practice. The prime consideration of educational institutions are the outcomes of learning, the enhanced abilities students can demonstrate because of their increase in knowledge , able to adapt and understand to changes because of their university experiences. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Assesment in Higher Education or any similar topic only for you Order Now Our concern is how learning takes effect and how teaching and assessment affect the quality of learning in order for students to acquire the knowledge and competencies that is required for the work place. To acquire these industry relevant skills lecturers suggest assessment be integral to teaching and how learning activities are structured. Hence , this report reviews the role of assessment in curriculum design change, itÃ¢â¬â¢s importance of continuous assessment for enhancing learning, common assessment practices and it issues and concerns. 1. Introduction: In this report, literature researched was with regards to the role of assessment in curriculum design change. Thus this report tries to answer the following questions in order to highlight the role of assessment in curriculum design, implementation and enhancement of learning. 1. What is curriculum and the role of assessment in curriculum development and enhancement? 2. What is Assessment of learning v Assessment for Learni ng and the practices in higher education 3. Issues and concerns on assessment in teaching and learning at institutions of higher learning? 2. Assessment as a part of curriculum practice Curriculum is a Latin word and it refers to a Ã¢â¬ËcourseÃ¢â¬â¢ or a Ã¢â¬ËtrackÃ¢â¬â¢ to be followed. In education, the focus is learning, then the most appropriate interpretation for the word curriculum is viewed as a course or Ã¢â¬Ëplan for learningÃ¢â¬â¢ (ef. Taba , 1962). (Howell and Evans, 1995) defines curriculum as the Ã¢â¬ËwhatÃ¢â¬â¢ of teaching. I would define curriculum as a course of study. Then the process of curriculum development can be seen in short where one develops a product, which involves an ongoing improvement. Curriculum development is a long cyclic process of research, designing, implementing and evaluating learning outcomes based on the interest, needs and capabilities of learners, and the many stakeholders, which directs enhancement. The literature review report is in relation to the role of assessment in curriculum development and enhancement of Teaching and Learning. What is Assessment? Assessment is any process that evaluates an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, understanding and skills. Van den Akker (2003) defines assessment as an integral component of curriculum practice. Assessment gives feedback on curriculum delivery which indicates about student learning, the curriculum and the academic policies. Thus educators strongly believe that assessment and curriculum be integrated in the curriculum cycle. For example, Students achievement of knowledge and skills are determined by assessment. Lecturers manage teaching and assessment of student competence according to the level of the course, giving grades, guiding and counselling and so on. These can only be possible if there are effective assessment procedures in the curriculum administration and practice. Ã¢â¬Å"In 1995 the Assessment Forum of the American Association of Higher Education led by Thomas A. Angelo went through an interactive process to develop a definition of assessment. The end-result of that definition process is as follows:Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Assessment is an ongoing process aimed at understanding and improving student learning. It involves making our expectations explicit and public; setting appropriate criteria and high standards for learning quality; systematically gathering, analyzing, and interpreting evidence to determine how well performance matches those expectations and standards; and using the resulting information to document, explain, and improve performance. When it is embedded effectively within larger institutional systems, assessment can help us focus our collective attention, examine our assumptions, and create a shared academic culture dedicated to assuring and improving the quality of higher education (Thomas A. Angelo, AAHE Bulletin, November 1995, p. 7)Ã¢â¬ In order to measure a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning outcome, progression and competence attained, various types of information need to be gathered to determine the degree of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s attainment in the learning outcomes for the curriculum. Various methods of formal and informal observation of students during their learning, examinations and quizzes, performance on assignments, projects and presentations are used to gather this information. Lecturers advise that there should be a plan for assessment at programme, course and lesson level, which is often overlooked. As Pratt (1998) stated, to make sure student achievements and grades reflect the learning outcomes established, assessments must be carefully planned, conducted, subject to continuous analysis, evaluation and enhancement. Learning outcomes (knowledge and competence of students), assessment, and teaching are all parts of an integrated whole. Assessment is believed to be essential to the teaching process in delivery and experience of the curriculum. But some students think of assessment as a form of control for lecturers. As (Pratt, 1998; Haladyna Downing, 2004) stated when students progress from one semester to another they become displeased and suspicious about the assessment practices, and regarding them to be unfair and a means to demonstrate favouritism and punishment. Ã¢â¬ In institutions of higher learning, educators have the choice to choose the assessment types and practices. Since assessment results affect academic competence, educators are required to create a conducive learning environment and make assessment integral to educational processes. In an encouraging learning environment a healthy dialogue takes place, trying out ideas, reflection, discussion, ask questions and enjoy the process of learning. (Pratt, 1998) Assessment is an important component and has several purposes. It directs the teaching process. Monitoring, discussion and observations in the classroom is also an important kind of assessment. This allows the instructor to gauge how well the lesson is going and whether learning is taking place with healthy discussion, participation and answering sessions (Nittko, 2004). Assessment helps in identifying learning difficulties, studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ strength and weakness. This then allows the instructor to set questions that can help build on the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses both formally and informally. Secondly assessment provides feedback on the learning. Information from assessment helps in programme evaluation (Pratt, 1998). Thirdly assessment declares ones achievement for various stakeholders like students, parents, the institution, prospective employers, the government sectors, accreditation body, and professional bodies. You read "The Role of Assesment in Higher Education" in category "Essay examples" Assessment in the form of quizzes, tests, class projects, assignments and informal observations declare how well a student has achieved the learning outcomes and grade in his/her course, module or unit (Nittko, 2004). Besides, assessment points students to pedagogical priorities and directs students approach to experience course curriculum. Classroom questions test and examinations would indicate to students, important topics of the curriculum. Example, if questions are based on trivial information, then students focus would be at factual recall and knowledge. If tests require substantive knowledge and deep understanding then students change their perspective to curriculum. Assessment motivations, improves self image and a sense of self power of students. When assessment is well designed, it produces success in learning; it motivates and stimulates student confidence and wanting to learn. Meherus and Lehman (1991) describes assessment as an important tool as it increases motivation towards their course, which establishes healthy study habits, which also provides feedback to lecturers to determine studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ strengths and weaknesses. Assessment gives lecturers an opinion on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Assessment results enable the lecturer to provide further guidance about their learning. Therefore, lecturers in institutes of higher learning should be aware of the significant role of assessment in curriculum and thus have the skills and tools to effectively setup curriculum at programme level. 3, Assessment for Learning v Assessment to Learning What is Assessment for Learning? It could be defined as: Ã¢â¬ ¢a form of positive formal feedback [ e. g. ecturers comment; self-assessment systems] Ã¢â¬ ¢provides informal feedback [ e. g. dialogue teaching; peer interaction] Ã¢â¬ ¢it gives an opportunity to the student to try and apply knowledge, skills and their understanding Ã¢â¬ ¢ assessment tasks that are relevant Ã¢â¬ ¢it guides students to develop independence and Ã¢â¬ ¢it has an appropriate balance between summative and formative assessment. There should be a balance between formative and summative assessment s. Continuous assessment or assessment for learning is practiced less compared to summative assessment. As stated by Careless (2004), lecturers in institutions of higher learning tend to choose more for theoretical knowledge than for practical and procedural knowledge in assessing students. Such assessment focuses on theory and concepts really do not help students for the real world. This limits the students of skills that employers look for. Brown Glaser (1999) states improving on assessment practice improves student learning. Further to that, standards of learning rose through ongoing assessment practice. It is noted that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviour and attitude towards learning changes, when assessment methods change. Students become more responsible and take ownership of their learning. But there are challenging problems with assessment for learning. Problems identified by Black and William (2004) with regards to assessment for learning in institutions of higher learning as: Ã¢â¬ ¢Assessment methods used by lecturers are not effective to promote good learning Ã¢â¬ ¢Grading practices gives rise to competition rather than self improvement and Ã¢â¬ ¢Feedback on assessment if practiced, often has a negative impact on less performing students which makes them believe that they lack ability and thus are not able to learn. Diamond (1998) further goes to describe the basic problem with assessment practice in institutions of higher learning, as a mismatch between learning outcomes and the assessment methods and criteria used by lecturers to assess and grade their students. Frequently, learning outcomes are expected to demonstrate critical thinking and problem solving skills, but the assessment type used would most frequently focus on recalling and recognition of content learned. Assessment used for the purpose of promoting student learning is described as assessment for learning. Assessment used for accountability purpose, grading or certification is assessment of learning. Assessments that promote enhancement to learning is one where there is a continuous process of back and forth between the student and the lecturer which provides feedback on progression until the outcome is well met. This sort of assessment is called Ã¢â¬Ëassessment for learningÃ¢â¬â¢ when assessment evidence is used to adjust teaching to meet learners needs and difficulties (Black William 1998). Assessment is part and parcel of learning. Assessment in fact, shapes learning. Much has been discussed and written that to enhance student learning, assessment has to be integrated with teaching (Wright, et. al, 1997). Gibbs and Simpson (2005) regards assessment for learning as a system which directs and controls student learning based on the power of summative assessment and grades in addition to providing feedback. Assessment and teaching has to be blended to contribute to the goal of improving learning. Good instructors do pay careful attention to assessment and teaching, and to have learning activities well structured. Despite this suggestion, lecturers in higher education do not practice the real importance of assessment. As Black William (1998) says this could also be because lecturers are not well trained in this area. In most institutions of higher learning assessment is used to test knowledge and does not test the critical and problem solving skills. Example, multiple choice questions promote de-contextualised, rot learning and this narrows the curriculum to basic skills with low cognitive demands. In contrast to this, the industries demand for transferable skills like communication, information retrieval, critical thinking, problem solving. And because of this, institutions have fast inclined to formative, holistic form of assessment which is described as Ã¢â¬ËauthenticÃ¢â¬â¢ assessments. However, as Black William (1998) argues that traditional form of assessment cannot be easily replaced because they are embedded in complex histories, culture and power relations of school societies. Shepard (2001) also suggested that conventional assessment method based on theories and psychometric principles conflicts with implications of assessment for learning which is based on cognitive and constructive learning standards. James (2003) findings indicate a number of major effects with assessment methods and students self-perception and confidence level. For many students, they were disappointed with feedback, on how to improve their level of competence, for others was the concern on how to achieve higher marks. Term exams were rarely discussed or available so that students could use them to improve their knowledge and skills. Assessment plays a significant role in implementing curriculum. There should be significant guiding principles for this to happen. James (2003) had put forth the following guiding principles for assessment for learning: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ensure ssessment methods used promote and reward desired learning activities and outcomes. Ã¢â¬ ¢Students have got clear instructions on assessment requirements. Ã¢â¬ ¢Provide effective and timely feedback with comments on a continuous basis. The first principle is based on BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s taxonomy, which is to recall and recognition, comprehension and appli cation, critical thinking and problem solving. In his second principle (James: 65) states the following: Ã¢â¬Å"Assessment procedures in higher education are likely to become increasingly open to security to candidates, and to candidates appeals. The need for commonly agreed marking procedures and techniques is obvious, if collective responsibility for candidates is maintained, full openness between colleagues and demonstrable internal consistency of courses and related assessment procedures are vital importanceÃ¢â¬ There can be a problem in generalised good assessment practices for learning. Different subject discipline like Engineering versus psychology would have different pedagogic assumptions. So if general principles cover all subjects, the way in which they manifest may differ for different subjects (Black William, 2004). Boud (1990) suggests alternate developments in student assessments in higher education, which is careful monitoring of assessment to see how relevant they are to the students. He also challenges that current assessment methods do not really prepare students to the real world. Meherns Lehman, 1991 Nitko 2004, state quality teaching and assessment are intertwined. They greatly improve studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Teaching will be effective when teaching activities, learning outcomes and assessment methods are well aligned. As Nitko (2004) suggests 4 key questions lecturers got to ask themselves when preparing for teaching and to implement continuous assessment. Ã¢â¬ ¢Is my lesson going well? Is there progression in student leaning? To align to these questions suggested assessment methods could be classroom observation during class activities, response to questions and studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ interactions. Ã¢â¬ ¢How can I improve to make the learning activity better? Diagnosis types of errors made by students, identify students who are not participating and also at the assessment methods used. Ã¢â¬ ¢What feedback to be given about the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s learning? Assessment methods used are informal observation and encouragement, how well they have achieved the learning outcome, assignments, quiz and consultations. Ã¢â¬ ¢Finally are the students ready to progress to the next level? Informal observation, checking and questioning students about their understanding of homework, test, quiz and grades obtained to decide on their progress to their next learning or do they require remedial instructions. Lecturers should use a variety of assessment methods to help student achieve the learning outcomes as stipulated in the course curriculum. In most cases lecturers generally use pen-and-paper achievement tests. Meherns Lehman (1991) argue that classroom evaluation should not be restricted to pen-and-paper but other forms like observation techniques, checklists etc. Continuous assessment is practical for everyday classroom use. Test, presentations, projects, journal, collaborative works are some that could be used to assess students and lecturers their stand in relation to knowledge and skills. Smith (2003) and Shepard (2001) stated that assessment trends are moving away from traditional methods to a variety of new approaches. For instance, Observation is greatly used by experienced teachers to identify studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progression or having difficulties. Portfolio or records of work are also another form of assessment practice. Portfolio is a kind of file where studentÃ¢â¬â¢s written works are kept. Portfolios provide cumulative evidence of learning over time in much detail and substance than a mere list of scores. Self and peer assessment are also essential to learning. StudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ self-reflection and their understanding are used to inform for further teaching and areas the lecturer needs to spend more time and effort. Brookhart (2001), Shepard (2001), and Stiggins (1999, 2001) maintained that students should be actively involved in self-evaluation as a form of assessment. Their argument was that students need to monitor their own progress by applying ongoing feedback that is helpful in showing them how to meet the ultimate learning outcome. However, self-assessment is only possible when lecturers help students develop assessment skills, because it is difficult for students to think of their work in terms of learning outcomes (Black William, 2004). Peer-assessment is also another important form of assessment. The learning task is placed in the hands of the students. While the lecturer is able to observe and reflect on what is happening and frame helpful interventions. The lecturer finds this form very helpful indeed. Misconceptions are highlighted and these are discussed when they go over the assessment. These forms of assessment require student active learning. As one student stated Ã¢â¬Ëafter a student marking my assignment, I can now acknowledge my mistakes easier. I hope that it is not just me who learned from the work but the student who marked it alsoÃ¢â¬â¢ (Black William, 2004:16). Feedback and comments to students about their learning is a good practice in assessment. Feedback should state ways for improvement. Grades or marks are not providing enough feedback to help improve student learning (Nitko, 2004). Feedback is effective when it provokes thinking in students. With regards to this, Back William (2004) stated marks are likely to set comparison; while only feedback and comments help them to improve. Research studies on feedback showed 60% improvement on performance. Feedback with no comments was more of judgement or grade with no indication for improvement (Black William, 2004) Hence it is important for the enhancement of student learning that lecturers emphasise on feedback and comment on assessed work of students in the learning process. . Issues and Concerns Staff One of the main concerns in assessment will be the lecturers. Especially here in Malaysia in the private sector , many lecturers lack the knowledge in assessment practices. Universities and college do not believe in investing in training. Another factor is lecturers have heavy teaching work load and large class sizes tha t formal assessment would be replace by mere test, assignment and examinations due to time constrains. Cost Costs to the faculty and institution are an important factor. Some form of assessment processes can be time consuming, involving student supervision in observation of activities. Time, of course, is money. Also investing in additional resources like technology increases cost. This does not enable the lecturers to use innovative methods of assessment. Standards To increase pass rates standards are compromised. Assessment requirements have placed more weightage on coursework, so student achievement has appeared to improve the assumption coursework is easier then exams. In some cases institutions do not have a quality system in place. Validity and reliability of assessment could be questionable. Conclusion Assessment is a vital component of curriculum practice that has important contribution for effective practice and operations of curriculum. LecturersÃ¢â¬â¢ acknowledgement for continuous assessment practice has significance for students learning of knowledge and skill. Lecturers should set assessment tasks that are practically challenging, provide feedback as they assess and get students engaged in the assessment process. Finally lecturers should change their views and practices of assessment and be committed to prepare competent graduates with the knowledge and skill in their specific field of study for the market place. References Akker, Van Den. (2003). Curriculum landscapes and Trends (pp1-10). Curriculum Perspectives:An Introduction. Black,P and William. (1998). Assessment and Classroom learning. Assessment in Education 5(1) Black,P. ,and William,D. (2004). Inside the Black Box: Phi-Delta kappan, 86(1):9-21 Diamond, R. M. (1998). Designing and Assessing Courses and Curricula: A practical Guide. Sanfrancisco: Jossey-Bass Inc Boud, D. (1990). Assessment and the Promotion of Academic Values. Studies in Higher Education 15(5): 101-111 Gibbs, G. Simpson, C. 2004-5) Conditions under which assessment supports studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning. Learning and Teaching in Higher Education, 1 (1), 3-31. Brookhart,S. M. (2001). Successful studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ formative and summative use of assessment information. Assessment in education 8, 153-169 Brown S. And Glaser A. (1999). Assessment Matters in higher Education: choosing and Using Diverse approaches. Great Britain: St. Edmunds bury press Ltd, SRHE and Open University press Careless,D. (2004). Converting assessment into learning. Theoretical and pratical perspectives. Paper Presented at Chinese University of Hong Kong. Unpublished. Haladyna and Downing. (2004). Constructive irrelevant in high stakes testing. Educational measurement:Issue and practice 23(1), 17-27 James,D. (2003). Making the graduate. Perspectives on student experience of assessment in higher education. In Ann filer (2003). Assessment: Social practice and social product. London: Rutledge Meherens, W. A. , and Lehmann, J. I. (1991). Measurement and Evaluation in Education Psychology (4th ed). Wadsworth: Thomson learning Nitko, A. J. (2004). Educational Assessment of Students (4th ed). Ohio: Merrill Prentice Hall Pratt,D. 1998). Curriculum planning: A handbook for professionals. London: Harcourt Brace College Publishers Smith, K. J. (2003). Reconsidering reliability in classroom assessment and grading. Educational measurement: Issue and practice 22(4), 26-3. Stiggins,R. J. (1992). Relevant classroom assessment training for teachers. Educational measurement: Issue and practice 1091), 7-12 Wright, et. al (1997). Teacher and classroom c ontext effects on student achievement; Implication for teacher evaluation; Journal of personnel Evaluation in Education, 11,57-67. How to cite The Role of Assesment in Higher Education, Essay examples
Saturday, April 25, 2020
I am a newcomer to the iPhone world. Certainly, it is preferable to previously incessant struggles with a dinosaur Nokia; and considering all the options for personalization, my iPhone is able to reveal a lot about me. About 85% of my Notes, for instance, are reminders of details I found notable about certain events or placesÃ¢â¬âlike Ã¢â¬Å"Remember: Jackson actually sided with Webster!Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Why doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Banana Republic have a more politically correct name?Ã¢â¬ The most frequently visited page on my Internet history is www.realclearpolitics.com, and a photograph of Robert McNamara with President Kennedy currently stands as my beloved lock-screen wallpaper. I also have a playlist just for washing dishes, chock-full of pieces like Thais from Meditation by Jules Massenet, Hero by Regina Spektor, and, of course, VivaldiÃ¢â¬â¢s Winter. A browse through my camera roll will undoubtedly uncover an absurd amount of world map screenshots. How else would I know wheth er or not South Sudan classified as a landlocked country before the next Model United Nations conference? Embracing the mind-set of a very atypical teenage girl, I maintain an online subscription to Stratfor global intelligence articles. We will write a custom essay sample on Nerdy iPhone or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The last, and most telling, nerdy facet on my phone is my New York Times app; I review the ensuing mobile news updates almost religiously. Yet, the best part of this entire arrangement is that whenever I misplace my phone, anyone who knows me in the slightest is always able to return it.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Jamaican Independence essays This investigation will account for Jamaicas movement towards and achievement of independence from the midst of the 1930s to the 1960s. It will focus on the approach for national development and the gradual increase of national consciousness marked by the end of the dark age and, essentially, by the Great Depression; the root of widespread political stirrings. The charismatic Norman Manley and Bustamante were the leaders of independence movements, the latter eventually becoming the first Prime Minister of an independent Jamaica. Jamaica fell to British rule in 1655, a prized colonial possession valued for its sugar production, with an established Crown Colony government appointed by the Queen . By the 1930s Jamaica had already undergone series of essential changes; the abolition of slave trade resulted in the collapse of the plantation system generating a prolonged economic crisis, for which Jamaica was gradually losing economical significance to British plantation owners. Oppressive taxation, discriminatory acts by the courts, and land-exclusion measures caused widespread unrest among the blacks. The Great Depression in 1929 lead to further economic hardship as the price for the West Indian exports fell. It entailed unemployment for the Jamaican masses, who already lacked representation in the government, and generated campaigns to acquire a degree of local political control. The origin of organised mass nationalist movement lay in the wave of political and economic stirrings of labour unrest, bankrupt plantations, declining trade and barely tolerable working conditions. It culminated in the outbreak of labour riots in 1938, whereby the black population demanded economic, social and political changes, such as more suitable wages and working conditions. During this chaotic period a new Ras Tarafi movement grew which stressed on the West Indian African qualities, symbolizing the questioning of European valu ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Best Summary and Analysis The Great Gatsby, Chapter 5 SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Because The Great Gatsbyis nine chapters long, getting to Chapter 5 means that weÃ¢â¬â¢ve arrived in the exact middle of the story. Thus, it makes sense that this chapter takes a single event - Daisy and GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s perfectly romantic reunion - and uses it to both tie together everything that has been set up so far, and also to create such a delicate balance of safety and happiness that itÃ¢â¬â¢s clear that everything will soon crumble. But before the bubble of love pops, enjoy the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most magical, most carefully planned Ã¢â¬Å"accidentalÃ¢â¬ date. Quick Note on Our Citations Our citation format in this guide is (chapter.paragraph). We're using this system since there are many editions of Gatsby, so using page numbers would only work for students with our copy of the book. To find a quotation we cite via chapter and paragraph in your book, you can either eyeball it (Paragraph 1-50: beginning of chapter; 50-100: middle of chapter; 100-on: end of chapter), or use the search function if you're using an online or eReader version of the text. The Great Gatsby: Chapter 5Summary Nick comes home to find all the lights on in GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s mansion. Gatsby wants to hang out, but clearly only because he wants to know what Nick has decided about asking Daisy for tea.Nick is happy to do it, and they plan for a day after Gatsby has had a chance to get NickÃ¢â¬â¢s lawn cut. Gatsby then makes a totally out of place proposal to do some bond business with Nick (whose job is selling bonds, and who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem particularly good at it or invested in it). Nick is uncomfortable about the quid pro quo (thatÃ¢â¬â¢s Latin for Ã¢â¬Å"something for somethingÃ¢â¬ - in other words, a transaction) feeling of the deal and declines. The next day, Nick invites Daisy to tea, and cautions her not to bring Tom. Gatsby sends someone to mow the lawn, orders a huge number of flowers, isnÃ¢â¬â¢t thrilled with NickÃ¢â¬â¢s sad tea and cakes selection, and worries that the day will be ruined because itÃ¢â¬â¢s raining. He then freaks out at the last second that Daisy isnÃ¢â¬â¢t coming, but just then she pulls up in her car. Gatsby and Daisy meet in NickÃ¢â¬â¢s living room in the most awkward, strained, and tense scene imaginable. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s unclear whether either one is happy to see the other. They are unable to speak two words. When Nick tries to leave them alone, Gatsby panics and tries to leave also. Nick calms him down, and then stands outside in the rain for an hour to give Gatsby and Daisy some privacy.When he returns, the two are totally different Ã¢â¬â no longer embarrassed, much calmer, and Gatsby is actually glowing. Gatsby suddenly brags that it only took him three years to earn the money to buy his mansion. Nick calls him out on this since earlier Gatsby had said he had inherited his wealth. Gatsby quickly says that the inheritance was lost in the financial panic of 1914 and that heÃ¢â¬â¢s been in several businesses since then. Daisy then exclaims that she loves GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s giant mansion (she can see it out of NickÃ¢â¬â¢s window). They go over to GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s, and he shows them around the now empty house, never taking his eyes off Daisy and her reaction to his things. Gatsby is completely overwhelmed by DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s presence. He is overcome with feelings that he canÃ¢â¬â¢t even put into words. Gatsby opens a cabinet and starts pulling out piles of shirts and throwing them onto a table. Every kind of shirt color and pattern imaginable stack higher and higher on this table until Daisy puts her head into the shirts and starts to cry about their beauty. It starts raining again, and Gatsby shows Daisy that her house is directly across the bay from his. Nick sees a photograph of Dan Cody, who Gatsby says used to be his best friend until he died. Gatsby shows Daisy a bunch of newspaper clippings about her that heÃ¢â¬â¢s been collecting (she would have been featured in the gossip pages that described fancy parties and rich peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s society). Hegets a phone call about Detroit but hangs up quickly. This is the first time that he hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t excused himself to take acall in the novel. Nick tries to leave again, but is again roped into staying.Gatsby asks Ewing Klipspringer, a guest who apparently is just always at the house, to play the piano for them. He plays a comical love song. Nick finally says goodbye and leaves.As he does, he sees Daisy whisper in GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s ear, and imagines that her siren-like voice holds him in thrall. DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s constant shirt-inspired weeping has now gotten her banned from Brooks Brothers. Key Chapter 5 Quotes "You're selling bonds, aren't you, old sport?"..."Well, this would interest you. It wouldn't take up much of your time and you might pick up a nice bit of money. It happens to be a rather confidential sort of thing." I realize now that under different circumstances that conversation might have been one of the crises of my life. But, because the offer was obviously and tactlessly for a service to be rendered, I had no choice except to cut him off there. (5.22-25) Nick recognizes that what he quickly dismissed in the moment could easily have been the moral quandary that altered his whole future. It seems that Nick thinks this was his chance to enter the world of crime Ã¢â¬â if we assume that what Gatsby was proposing is some kind of insider trading or similarly illegal speculative activity Ã¢â¬â and be thus trapped on the East Coast rather than retreating to the Midwest. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s striking that Nick recognizes that his ultimate weakness Ã¢â¬â the thing that can actually tempt him Ã¢â¬â is money. In this way, he is different from Gatsby, whose temptation is love, and Tom, whose temptation is sex Ã¢â¬â and of course, he is also different because he resists the temptation rather than going all-in. Although NickÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal could be spun as a sign of his honesty, it instead underscores how much he adheres to rules of politeness. After all, he only rejects the idea because he feels he Ã¢â¬Å"had no choiceÃ¢â¬ about the proposal because it was Ã¢â¬Å"tactless.Ã¢â¬ Who knows what shenanigans Nick would have been on board with if only Gatsby were a little smoother in his approach? He had passed visibly through two states and was entering upon a third. After his embarrassment and his unreasoning joy he was consumed with wonder at her presence. He had been full of the idea so long, dreamed it right through to the end, waited with his teeth set, so to speak, at an inconceivable pitch of intensity. Now, in the reaction, he was running down like an overwound clock. (5.4) On the one hand, the depth of GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings for Daisy is romantic. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s living the hyperbole of every love sonnet and torch song ever written. After all, this is the first time we see Gatsby lose control of himself and his extremely careful self-presentation. But on the other hand, does he actually know anything about Daisy as a human being? Notice that itÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"the ideaÃ¢â¬ that heÃ¢â¬â¢s consumed with, not so much the reality. The word Ã¢â¬Å"wonderÃ¢â¬ makes it sound like heÃ¢â¬â¢s having a religious experience in DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s presence. The pedestal that he has put her on is so incredibly high thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing for her to do but prove disappointing. Daisy put her arm through his abruptly but he seemed absorbed in what he had just said. Possibly it had occurred to him that the colossal significance of that light had now vanished forever. Compared to the great distance that had separated him from Daisy it had seemed very near to her, almost touching her. It had seemed as close as a star to the moon. Now it was again a green light on a dock. His count of enchanted objects had diminished by one. (5.121) Almost immediately when heÃ¢â¬â¢s finally got her, Daisy starts to fade from an ideal object of desire into a real life human being. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even matter how potentially wonderful a person she may be Ã¢â¬â she could never live up to the idea of an Ã¢â¬Å"enchanted objectÃ¢â¬ since she is neither magical nor a thing. There is also a question here of Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬â¢s next?Ã¢â¬ for Gatsby. If you have only one goal in life, and you end up reaching that goal, what is your lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose now? Is Gatsby more in love with the idea of love than with the actual human being he obsesses over? The Great GatsbyChapter 5 Analysis Now let's consider how this chapter plays into the book as a whole. Overarching Themes Love, Desire, and Relationships. After an earlier chapter of Tom and Myrtle together, we get a chapter of Daisy and Gatsby together. At first glance, the pairs are diametric opposites. Tom and Myrtle are crass and vulgar, constantly chattering about nothing, driven by materialism and physical desire, without a drop of love or romance between them. On the other hand, Gatsby and Daisy are modest and embarrassed, almost speechless, overwhelmed by feelings, and have a physical comfort with each other that Tom doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t inspire either in Daisy or in Myrtle (both of whom he physically hurts in varying degrees). GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s love for Daisy has an otherworldly quality that is several times described in either mythic or religious terms. But already the chapter anticipates that elevating the relationship to such heights makes a fall almost inevitable. Morality and Ethics. Nick is tempted by what he later comes to realize is the moral quandary of his life. Twice, Gatsby offers to do some kind of business with him. There are two ethical challenges in this offer. First, Gatsby is suggesting that Nick needs to be paid for services rendered Ã¢â¬â that asking Daisy to tea and letting Gatsby see her at NickÃ¢â¬â¢s house is a transaction that needs to be reimbursed somehow. This casts an oddly pimp-and-prostitute vibe on what Nick is being asked to do, which would dispel some of the fairytale romance that Gatsby is ostensibly going for. Second, since it comes on the heels of their encounter with Mr. Wolfshiem, GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s business proposition is most likely illegal (Insider trading? Speculation? Printing fake bonds? There are several possibilities.). It connects Nick to the lawless criminality that in this novel is associated with the new Ã¢â¬Å"Wild East.Ã¢â¬ Symbolism: Gatsby's Shirts.Gatsby showers Daisy with his array of exquisite shirts in a display that is at the same time self-congratulation and also a submissive plea. On the one hand, this odd moment is like a male birdÃ¢â¬â¢s complicated mating dance Ã¢â¬â the shirts are the peacockÃ¢â¬â¢s plumage. These shirts are a visual representation of how far Gatsby has come Ã¢â¬â he can literally cover Daisy with his riches. But on the hand, the desperate way he shows them off ties into NickÃ¢â¬â¢s observation that Ã¢â¬Å"think he revalued everything in his house according to the measure of response it drew from her well-loved eyesÃ¢â¬ (5.1). He wants her approval and is putting all of himself out there for her to pronounce judgment on. Motifs: Weather. For the first time, the novel dwells at length on an extremeweather event. The intermittent downpour sometimes limits and sometimes facilitates Daisy and GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s afternoon together. The rain allows for moments of physical comedy. For example, GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s plan to Ã¢â¬Å"accidentallyÃ¢â¬ drop by NickÃ¢â¬â¢s house during tea with Daisy falls apart when he makes his appearance soaking wet (meaning that he obviously wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t simply trying to visit Nick Ã¢â¬â who would do that in that kind of weather?). The rain also creates physical and emotional boundaries, allowing Daisy and Gatsby to stay in their private world. Literally, this happens when they canÃ¢â¬â¢t tour the mansionÃ¢â¬â¢s grounds and have to stay in his house. But more importantly, this happens when the rain creates a mist that hides DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s house across the bay from view. She doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to think about her marriage or her daughter Ã¢â¬â she can exist with Gatsby surrounded by magical-sounding Ã¢â¬Å"pink and golden billow of foamy cloudsÃ¢â¬ (5.134). As soon as one magical light experience (the green dock light) goes stale, Gatsby replaces it with another (sunlit rain clouds). Maybe he just needs a lamp. Crucial Character Beats Nick agrees to invite Daisy over for tea and an Ã¢â¬Å"accidentalÃ¢â¬ meeting with Gatsby. He is able to resist the offer to do business with Gatsby. Daisy and Gatsby finally meet! ItÃ¢â¬â¢s awkward and horrible at first, but after an hour alone together both of them seem very happy. Then, the trio goes to tour GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s mansion. Gatsby is overwhelmed by DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s presence and is almost manic. He throws piles and piles of his shirts in front of her until she cries at how beautiful they are. Nick keeps trying to leave Gatsby and Daisy alone, but keeps being roped back into their company. Compare this to the way he was trying to get away from Tom and Myrtle in Chapter 2and also forced to stick around. Daisy and Gatsby are left alone together, clearly full of feelings for each other, and in their own little world. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s Next? Laugh at a drenched, umbrella-less Gatsby in the most recent movie adaptation- itÃ¢â¬â¢s one of the few physical comedy bits in the novel, and that movie gets it just right. Explore the chapterÃ¢â¬â¢s other key symbol: the green light on DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s dock. Review the chapterÃ¢â¬â¢s main motifs: the rainy weather, and the conspicuous lack of alcohol. Move on to the summary of Chapter 6, or revisit the summary of Chapter 4. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Friday, February 14, 2020
The Strategy of the World's Largest Producer of Bearings - Case Study Example SKF has been contacted by ITC, its major distributor in the United States in order to participate in a reverse auction by Steelcorps, one of SKF's customers through ITC. The process of procurement will award the lowest bid in terms of price for the raw materials that Steelcorp needs, and with SKF as its major supplier of bearings during the past couple of years, the latter is expected to join the reverse auction.Answering the invitation and participating in the reverse auction is not an easy choice to make for the executives of SKF, however. The executives are on a crossroad between two major decisions: to join or not to join the reverse auction.If SKF joins the reverse auction, it signals the whole industry about the change in its value proposition, which is to deliver excellent services at a premium Ã¢â¬â a more for more strategy in the value proposition matrix (Fathy & Smithee 1999). If it joins the reverse auction where the winner will be determined based on the lowest price o f the bid, the company becomes inconsistent with its strategy and it blurs what its brand stands for; this is one of the considerations. On the other hand, Steelcorp is one of the company's major source of revenues through ITC, its biggest distributor in the US. ITC relies on SKF with the latter's high mark up an allowance for ITC, as ITC needs the profit margins from the SKF sales to Steelcorp in order to boost its profitability. Because of the recession, SKF's revenue targets are 5% lower than the previous year; dropping the Steelcorp reverse auction will also substantially affect its profitability for the current year. These are the complications.